Eficiência Energética: rota de fuga da crise

Reduzir o consumo de energia sem sacrificar o ritmo de produção é possível

O ano de 2015 foi marcado pela retração da economia brasileira, que continuou a dar sinais de desaceleração, e as previsões para 2016 não são animadoras. Neste cenário, toda redução de custo que puder ser alcançada faz parte da estratégia de sobrevivência de companhias de diversos setores em todo o país. O gasto com energia elétrica é uma das parcelas mais relevantes no orçamento de uma empresa, podendo ser a maior despesa de todas, como no caso das indústrias conhecidas como eletrointensivas. Nos últimos anos, vimos os preços de energia das distribuidoras subirem significativamente no mercado cativo – em alguns casos, esta variação foi de mais de 70%.

Com a crescente gravidade da crise macroeconômica que embala o ritmo dos negócios no país, é importante que os grandes consumidores busquem ferramentas que propiciem economia com este insumo, de modo a atravessar este período conturbado com o máximo de redução de danos possível. Embora a negociação de preços de energia esteja cada vez mais disseminada no ambiente empresarial por meio do Mercado Livre de Energia, poucas companhias brasileiras atentaram para a relevância de construir uma estratégia de consumo eficiente de energia elétrica. Além de garantir um custo competitivo, é de extrema importância observar em detalhe como e onde a energia está sendo consumida. A partir de uma análise minuciosa, é possível identificar pontos de melhoria e eventuais “vilões” de consumo de energia, que servirão de base para o desenvolvimento de uma estratégia de redução de consumo. Este mecanismo de inteligência é amplamente utilizado em mercados como os Estados Unidos e em diversos países da Europa e conhecido como Eficiência Energética.

O conceito de Eficiência Energética abrange análises com níveis de profundidade variados, que resultam em estudos e relatórios que servirão de guia para o consumo de energia de uma empresa, com foco na obtenção de economia e, em muitos casos, ganho de produtividade. Cada análise é customizada de acordo com estudo prévio sobre a realidade da empresa e do setor no qual ela está inserida. As oportunidades identificadas vão de simples trocas de lâmpadas até a substituição de equipamentos por outros mais modernos e eficientes. Todo investimento necessário para a realização destas adequações já é contemplado no estudo de Eficiência Energética e considerado na projeção da redução de custo, levando em conta sempre as relações de custo X benefício.

Para as companhias que reconheçam a oportunidade de ganhos com a Eficiência Energética, é essencial ter discernimento sobre o real objetivo deste trabalho. Enquanto qualquer empresa pode reduzir seu consumo de energia optando por cortar dispositivos, como diminuir o número de lâmpadas e reduzir o tempo de atividade de máquinas em geral para poupar energia, um projeto de Eficiência Energética visa alcançar a redução no consumo mantendo ou até mesmo aumentando a produtividade da companhia, sem a necessidade de sacrificar o ritmo de operações. As adequações podem ocorrer em diversas áreas, como iluminação, refrigeração (para conforto ou para processo), motores, bombas, ar comprimido, entre outros.

A inteligência necessária para este tipo de diagnóstico é específica e envolve especialistas no setor de energia. Neste sentido, o consumidor de energia pode contar com a recém-criada Comerc ESCO, empresa do grupo Comerc Energia especializada em Eficiência Energética. A Comerc ESCO realiza um diagnóstico, desenvolve a estratégia de redução do consumo e, em alguns casos, disponibiliza os recursos financeiros necessários para a implantação das melhorias. Neste cenário, o cliente ressarcirá o investimento com uma parte da economia alcançada mensalmente. Além da economia, o consumidor também terá como benefício uma menor incidência de manutenções corretivas, evitando gastos adicionais.

De acordo com dados da Associação Brasileira das Empresas de Serviços de Conservação de Energia (ABESCO), o Brasil desperdiça aproximadamente 53 terawatts-hora por ano. Este montante representa uma perda anual de R$ 12 bilhões para os consumidores, o equivalente a 60% de toda energia produzida por Itaipu por ano ou, ainda, todo o consumo de energia de Pernambuco e Rio de Janeiro em 12 meses. Ainda de acordo com a associação, existe espaço para uma economia de 10% de todo o consumo de energia do país, sendo 15% no consumo residencial, 6,2% no industrial, 11% no comercial e 10% em outros.

O cenário é preocupante, porém revela o quanto um trabalho adequado de Eficiência Energética pode ser positivo para as empresas, que ganham competitividade, e também para a sociedade em geral, beneficiada pela diminuição do risco de falta de energia a partir de um consumo inteligente. Conquistar este nível de sofisticação estratégica no consumo de energia depende somente da escolha de cada companhia, que pode optar por permanecer à mercê do desempenho de seus equipamentos ou pela identificação de oportunidades de economia por meio da Eficiência Energética.

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